Wie viele andere kulturelle Errungenschaften entstammt auch Backgammon Die Griechen nennen es "Tavli", die Türken "Tavla", die Italiener "Tavola Reale",. Sowohl Spielfläche wie das Spielziel sind dem heutigen Backgammon ähnlich. In Griechenland spricht man Tavli, in der Türkei von Tavla und. Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel. Dabei gewinnt jener Spieler, der als Erster alle eigenen Steine aus dem Spielfeld abtragen kann.
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Backgammon Tavla Online Backgammon játék VideoBeginner Tutorial: How To Play Backgammon February Entering checkers: A player may not move his first two checkers the ones that are initially on the board until all of his other checkers have been entered onto the board. Winning a single game can take a Luxor Slots time, so we decided to just make the simplest version, without the doubling dice and tracking wins over Casino Slots Game games.
You must use both numbers of a roll if possible, or all four numbers in the case of doubles. Hitting: A checker sitting alone on a point is called a blot.
If an opposing checker lands on a blot, the blot is hit and placed on the bar. You may not run for cover after hitting an opposing blot in your own home board.
If you choose to hit within your home board, you must cover the hitting checker with another of your own checkers or leave it exposed.
Entering from the bar: Any time you have one or more checkers on the bar, your first obligation is to enter those checker s into the opposing home board.
You enter a checker by moving it to an open point corresponding to one of the numbers on the rolled dice. If you are able to enter some but not all of your checkers, you must enter as many as you can then give up the remainder of your turn.
Bearing Off: Once you have moved all fifteen of your checkers into your home board, you may begin bearing off. You bear off rolling a number that corresponds to the point on which the checker resides, and then removing that checker from the board.
If there is no checker on the point indicated by the roll, then you must make a legal move using a checker on a higher-numbered point.
If there are no checkers on higher-numbered points, you are permitted to remove a checker from the highest point that has one. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.
Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the "Backgammon Million" tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos. Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games.
Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options,  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.
Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.
Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players. The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice.
For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found at Shahr-e Sukhteh, the fields are represented by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India. According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially, no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game.
The Royal Game of Ur, originating in ancient Mesopotamia before BC, may also be an ancestor of modern-day table games like backgammon.
It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses. Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon.
In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle , which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 'six' in Hebrew , Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
Shesh also means 'six' in Persian and Kurdish , and five is likely to be closely related to penj , meaning 'five'.
There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon. Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point.
The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.
In long nardi , one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube.
Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
In Roman times, this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt. Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC.
The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Players try to flip their pieces over the opponents' pieces to beat them. Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and create a lively atmosphere.
Portes: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.
Plakoto : A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. Asodio: Also known as Acey-deucey , where all checkers are off the board, and players enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.
These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns. After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first.
There is no doubling cube. Over time it was replaced by other games such as xiangqi Chinese chess.
In Japan, ban-sugoroku is thought to have been brought from China in the 6th century, and is mentioned in Genji monogatari.
As a gambling game, it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.
In Korea, it is called Ssang-ryuk or Jeopo. The jeux de tables 'Games of Tables' , predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers.
In , Louis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing. In Spain , the Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegos , completed in , describes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess.
A wooden board and checkers were recovered from the wreck of the Vasa among the belongings of the ship's officers. Knock opponent backgammon checkers off as much as possible.
This makes it more difficult for the opponent to roll to get back into the game after being knocked off.
Feeling fiesty? Intentionally leave some checkers back to try and knock the opponent off the board as they make a run for their home territory!
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